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2016: An overwhelming majority of 72% urban Pakistanis when faced with a conflict or dispute needing resolution, claim to have resorted to a traditional, customary or local leader- Jirga, Biradari, or religious leader.


According to the findings of the World Justice Project Report on The Rule of Law in Pakistan based on a Gallup Pakistan Survey in urban Pakistan, in 2016, barely one third respondents (33%) said they took an action to resolve their dispute in the last twelve months. Out of which, 72% said their selected dispute mechanism was a traditional, customary or local leader. The remaining 28% who took their dispute to a formal mechanism went to the police (16%), court (7%), or a government office (5%).

As reported by respondents these disputes were pertaining to neighboring or housing issues, business and employment, natural resources (grazing, land or water), household conflicts, government, crime and law enforcements.

In Pakistan, the survey was conducted between May and September in 2016 through face-to-face interviews in 2,100 households distributed proportionally across the five urban areas of Faisalabad, Karachi, Lahore, Peshawar, and Quetta.